Dislocation theory has been very well established and has been successful in understanding the deformation of metals, but it has never properly explained the ripples and kink bands that are formed when layered materials (e.g. graphite, ice, MAX phases) are deformed. Researches in our MAX/MXene, Computational Materials  Science and Design, and Dynamic Characterization research groups used computational simulations, nanoindentation, and microscopy to find evidence for a new deformation micromechanism to explain the plastic deformation of layered materials like the MAX phases, graphite, and mica. Read more about it in the recent press release by the American Ceramic Society and recent article published in Scientific Reports.

See this video showing a computer simulation of how ripplocations form when graphite is indented.

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